Do we maintain our fitness by consuming more protein?

During the quarantine, many of us were looking for a way to get fit at home, and we may think we need to eat more protein to have energy for exercise.

Protein powder, once used by bodybuilders, is now available on supermarket shelves and in beverages, packages and fortified foods, in the form of capsules and even chocolate and candy.

In 2016, one in ten Britons consumed protein powder in the three months leading up to the survey, according to a survey by Mintel Market Research.

Experts make the following recommendations about protein intake and tips to know before taking protein supplements and protein shakes and drinks.

Do we need to take protein supplements?

The British Ministry of Health recommends 55.5 grams of protein per day for men and 45 grams for women.

According to the British Nutrition Foundation, the average daily protein intake for people between the ages of 19 and 64 is 87.4 grams for men and 66.6 grams for women.

The need for protein varies from person to person and depends on the weight and level of physical activity. “People who exercise for greater fitness or fitness need more protein,” says Grimm Close, a professor of human physiology at John Moores University in Liverpool. He recommends 1.5 grams per kilogram of body weight for someone who exercises regularly. (For example, 90 grams for a person weighing 60 kg)

“Protein drinks are a convenient and convenient food for most people, not an essential need, the best way is to get the protein your body needs by eating,” says Professor Klose. However, sometimes these protein products are also useful.

 

Isn’t it better to get the protein we need with food?

 

One of the most common types of protein drinks is made from whey, a by-product of cheese production. “This is a milky liquid from which fat and sugar have been taken,” says Professor Klose.

“Other types of protein have become very popular, vegan proteins with combinations of hemp, rice and chickpea proteins,” says Scott Leedler, a sports coach. But are they necessary?

“For those who exercise, they need to consume a constant amount of protein daily,” says Master Klose.

If you can not get the amount of protein you need by eating, adding protein supplements can increase the amount of protein in your diet for physical activity.

His suggestion is to eat natural foods rich in protein throughout the day.

“Eat omelette, smoked salmon or fruit yogurt when you wake up in the morning,” he says.

Meats such as beef and chicken, fish, eggs, dairy, lentils, beans, cereals, tofu and soy products are all good sources of protein.

If you are on a low carb diet, ‘do not substitute animal protein’
Does Protein Consume Losing Weight?
The multi-billion dollar industry of powders and protein supplements
Dream of having big arms with supplements

 

Does protein powder help you build muscle?

 

“You see the picture of men in magazines who look like Arnold Schwarzenegger in the mid-eighties and have a protein drink in their hand. Of course, it’s not because they drink like Arnold, they work out with all their might and have a complete diet,” says Professor Klose. have”.

Because you need protein to build muscle, Lidler advises, “You only get the results you want if you follow a smart exercise program and eat a healthy diet and get enough sleep and rest after exercise.”

“Protein drinks do not work magic or have a surprisingly active ingredient that gives immediate results.” “When protein is absorbed from any source in the body, it is broken down into amino acids, which are the building blocks of muscle, but without exercise you can not grow and strengthen your muscles.”

Does protein powder help you lose weight?
“Protein digestion requires more energy (more than other micronutrients), so it reduces appetite. However, using protein drinks instead of main meals to lose weight temporarily,” says Dr. Aisha Iqbal, a physician and personal trainer for weight loss. “It is unstable and usually returns to its previous state as soon as it is cut off.”

Another problem is that protein drinks do not have the same nutritional value as food and cannot be a sustainable substitute for meals. “They do not have all the vitamins and nutrients in a healthy, balanced diet,” says Professor Klose.

Are Supermarket Protein Packages Healthy Food?
There are many types of protein packages available, some of which are unhealthy and contain unhealthy additives, sugars and fats; It is better to read the product label before buying. “Instead of buying your own ready-made packages, you can mix them with protein-rich foods like nuts and nuts,” says Liddler.

Which protein product to choose?
“If you’re trying to adjust your protein intake to fit your exercise routine and you can’t get enough of it despite eating protein-rich foods,” says Rick Miller, a clinical nutritionist and sports nutrition expert with the British Nutrition Association. “Make up for this protein deficiency with reputable protein supplement products.”

“Top athletes usually consume certified quality products that have a special stamp on athletes. This is also a recommendation for consumers of non-professional dietary supplements,” says Professor Klose.

Some protein powders have more calories, carbohydrates, and protein than the body needs, and some products, known as “muscle builders,” are high in calories and carbohydrates.

“If you want to take a protein supplement, always read the product label carefully and consume the recommended amount and do not be tempted to consume more because the evidence does not support this,” says Miller.

Protein products are not for everyone
“People with kidney disease should be careful about consuming extra protein because there is evidence that consuming extra protein can exacerbate kidney disease,” says Dr. Iqbal. If in doubt, ask your doctor to refer you to a nutritionist.

“There is evidence that, in the long run, excessive protein intake increases the risk of osteoporosis,” says the NHS website.

Protein supplementation is not recommended for children due to insufficient research on its long-term side effects.

Vegetarian diet

YOU CAN PICK UP AN YAPE OF THIS FOOD FOR YOUR BREAKFAST BEFORE LUNCH AND LUNCH AFTER LUNCH AND DINNER:

 

you need to increase your calories in order to gain weights, so that’s why you have to eat more than three times a day more than normal people if you want to gain weights.

 

 

I recommend you stop eating sugar and sweet things instead use more nuts and find some veggie stuff with more protein to eat as a snack.

 

drink art least 10 glasses of water a day and reduce the amount of alcohol.

 

its hard to write the veggie diet cus I don’t know if everything is easy to find over there ?

 

 

 

 

Monday

  • Breakfast: Oatmeal with fruit and flaxseeds
  • Lunch: Grilled veggie and hummus wrap with sweet potato
  • Dinner: Tofu banh mi sandwich with pickled slaw

Tuesday

  • Breakfast: Scrambled eggs with tomatoes
  • Lunch: Zucchini  stuffed with veggies and feta with tomato soup
  • Dinner: Chickpea curry with basmati rice

Wednesday

  • Breakfast: Greek yogurt with chia seeds and any fruit
  • Lunch spiced lentil soup rice
  • Dinner: Chickpea curry with basmati rice
  • Thursday
  • Breakfast: Tofu scramble with sauteed peppers, onions and spinach
  • Lunch: Burrito bowl with brown rice, beans, salsa and veggies
  • Dinner: Vegetable paella with a side salad

Friday

  • Breakfast: Whole-wheat toast with avocado and nutritional yeast
  • Lunch: Marinated tofu pita pocket with Greek salad
  • Dinner: Chickpea curry with basmati rice

Saturday

  • Breakfast: Smoothie of kale, berries, bananas, nut butter and almond milk
  • Lunch: Red lentil veggie burger with avocado salad
  • Dinner: Flatbread with grilled garden vegetables and pesto

Sunday

  • Breakfast: Kale and sweet potato hash
  • Lunch: Bell peppers stuffed with tempeh with zucchini fritters
  • Dinner: Chickpea curry with basmati rice

General guideline diet program

 

PICK UP ANY OF IT FOR YOUR MEAL

 

Breakfast :

 

Brown bread, eggs, low fat cheeses, Greek yoghurt, oatmeal with some fruit or honey and nuts mixed,

 

Peanut Butter , omelette with vegetable,

 

Between breakfast and lunch:

 

Any type of fruit such as Apple, banana…

 

Any sort of Nuts

 

Vegetable any sort of

 

 

Lunch :

 

Fish with Brown bread or sweet potato, chicken breast or steak law fat or Turkey. Tuna with no oil with browner sweet potato or even brown pasta

Any type of Beans

Lentils

Beans

 

 

Between Lunch and Dinner :

 

 

Any type of fruit :

Cottage cheese with flax seeds and cinnamon

Dark chocolate and almonds

Red bell pepper with guacamole

Greek yogurt and mixed berries

Mixed nuts

Apple slices with peanut butter

 

Dinner:

 

The same as lunch but with salads or vegetables.

 

plain low fat yogurt

 

Any type of Beans

Lentils

 

Drink water 10 to 12 glass a day

 

 

GOOD LUCK

 

 

 

 

 

 

STRATEGIC SPORTS MARKETING REPORT Manchester United FC

STRATEGIC SPORTS MARKETING REPORT

 

 

 

Manchester United FC

 

Executive summary

 

Manchester United football club is based in professional football and it is located in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England. It participates and competes in the Premier League which is considered English football’s top flight. The club was founded in 1878 with the name Newton Health LYR and later changed to Manchester United in 1902 thereafter moving to Old Trafford in 1910.  The team has won many trophies since its inception which has put it in a position of having a large fan base. Increasing commercial revenue is a crucial strategic objective for Manchester United. This report will use the SOSTAC model to evaluate Manchester’s internal and external environment to give recommendations on the strategies of achieving its objective of increasing commercial revenue. The major recommendations are the expansion of sponsors’ portfolio, segmentation and targeting, utilization of current media and mobile opportunities, improve the reach and distribution of their broadcasting rights as well as revenue diversification and margin improvement. Marketing mix assumes the 4P’s of marketing which are; Price, product, promotion, and place.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Executive summary. 1

Introduction. 3

Situational Analysis of United FC-where we are. 3

External contingencies. 5

The objective. 5

Strategy- How to get there. 6

Sponsors’ portfolio expansion. 6

Further build their retail, merchandising, apparel and product licensing business 6

Utilization of current media and mobile opportunities. 7

Improve the reach and distribution of their broadcasting rights. 8

Revenue diversification and margin improvement 9

Segmentation and Targeting. 9

The tactic- How to exactly get there. 10

Product 10

Place. 11

Price 11

Promotion. 12

Action- what should be done. 12

Control- Did we get there?. 12

Conclusion. 13

Bibliography. 14

Appendeix 14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

The Manchester United football club other than being a club is a brand and a worldwide sports franchise as well. The global growth of football has been successful that it has become a gap for research. According to [25], the football industry is about 150 billion Euros in net worth; with the English premier league having around 1 billion Euros. Some of the football events that have contributed to generating this revenue are the EPL, World Cup, Spanish La Liga as well as Italian Serie A [25]. Manchester United is one team that has greatly contributed to this revenue by attracting so many fans both locally and internationally. [5] mentions that the club has an estimated fan base of around 1.1 billion people globally. Some of the contributing factors are it is good corporate together with football strategies. The objective of this analysis is to increase the commercial revenue of Manchester United football club. To integrate Manchester’s objectives, strategies, and tactics, the SOSTAC model will be used for the analysis.

Situational Analysis of United FC-where we are.

 

According to [12], the SOSTAC model provides room for a company to arrange the knowledge, ideas, aims as well as objectives based on social media marketing (SMM). This model touches on the most important components to establish a stronger marketing plan [12]. Situation analysis consists of the internal and external aspects. Brand equity is one internal aspect that has aided the club in generating more revenue and would continue generating more in the future. The organization structure of United FC is the strong corporate governance type [25]. The daily running of the club is left for the current manager Ole Gunnar Solskjær and the board is run by the Glazer family. This management style makes the fan feel like they own the club, thus helps in building stronger brand equity for United FC [15]. The brand is an important component in increasing revenue within a company or business. In a study done by [11], Manchester United had the ambition of making its brand stand out and the move was to adopt the “Think locally, act locally” strategy. To attract the large Asia market, the club thus signed Park Ji Sung. Players have many followers and thus, through this approach, the Asian market became Manchester’s making the brand outstand [11].

Product diversification:

Just like other football clubs, Manchester United is comprised of sporting as well as economic status. For full development, a club like Manchester United must be active in the market. United has influenced the market on its own rather than just waiting to adapt to competing clubs or companies [20]. To ensure an active relationship, the club has penetrated new markets and influenced social as well as environmental aspects. The main product sold by this team to the fans is the football game; a service that is majorly offered by the Manchester Football club limited whereas the non-sporting activities have been outsourced though it used to run them on its own. A good case is the betting and gaming service which is offered by Betfred [20]. To increase revenue, the company manages 9 subsidiaries in which only the Manchester United FC is managed directly by the club’s management. The rest have been put in place through the assistance of other business partners. According to[2] diversification is the practice of getting into other lines of business other than the main activity; so, Manchester has diversified its services by entering other lines to increase revenue.[20]further mentions that Manchester United Catering Limited, Man. U Television ltd, Manchester Merchandising Ltd (Nike), Manchester United International Ltd (Nike), Manchester United Football club ltd, Interactive ltd, Alderley Urban Investment ltd, Timecrtae limited, and Manchester United Commercial Enterprise Ltd are the subsidiaries of the club.

External contingencies

 

 

SOCIAL – The culture of the society plays a big role in the organization’s environment. Some of the social factors that impact the company are shared beliefs and attitudes; these affect how the marketers of the company would make a marketing design for their sports activities [21]. Demographics is a major role player for the company because of the increased gender equality campaigns. The company must now diversify its products to serve everyone [17].

 

TECHNOLOGICAL – With the emergence of new technologies, with the fans having increased in number making the need to watch football a pressing matter, the company has decided to go digital by introducing an online Livestream of their matches. This can be accessed through the company’s website, MUTV as well as its social media platforms [21]. The company is also shifting towards social media to gain more followers in the bid of increasing revenues. The club is also in a position to finance current technologies like the VAR, ball line technology, and interactive advertising to fairly compete with its competitors [17].

 

LEGAL – It is not a guarantee in most countries that the legal framework would protect the rights of that organization. it is therefore the responsibility of that company to be in a position of protecting itself [21]. The company has observed the employment law by employing both male and female personnel but is yet to decide if it could offer them the same pay even if they do the same job. The company is also integrated with the Manchester United catering and security units that are available to ensure the health and safety laws are adhered to [17].

 

The objective

 

The objective of this marketing strategy is to increase revenue as well as profitability by enlarging the company’s high growth businesses whose purpose is to leverage the brand, marketing facility, and global community. The focus of the strategy is to sell the brand and make a profit thus increasing revenue.

Strategy- How to get there

 

Sponsors’ portfolio expansion

 

Expanding this portfolio implies securing sponsorships with top brands. The team has historically initiated an enterprising approach to identify, secure as well as support sponsors. In 2019, the club announced around 8 new local together with global partners for sponsorship. According to [9], the team attracts more revenue through media than match day. The importance of the media in football is increasing more and more daily and the management of the team must understand this trend for a long time. The team is diversified into Manchester United tv as discussed above and it is made to reach at least 180 homes globally. The mobile apps for MU are present in over 16 countries, currently in Bulgaria and Bangladesh. The company’s website has had a 40% growth annually over the past five years and in the social media segment, the club is the first to have over 20 million Facebook fans. The company is also in partnership with Nike, Audi, DHL, AON, Adidas, 20th Century Fox, Afroflots among other partners whom according to [9], a sum of over 11 million euros has been paid to the company.[25] mentions that the company has opened up offices in Asia, as well as North America together with their London offices and the club, intends to put them in a position of securing major global brands’ sponsorships. Being aware of its brand equity, the club is tapping into this in a bid to generate more revenue via sponsorship deals [25].

Further build their retail, merchandising, apparel and product licensing business

 

This strategy aims to increase the company’s product range, increase location, and to expand its product licenses’ portfolio around the world [25]. One aspect that this strategy is dependent on is the club’s fan base. Asia has more than half of the company’s fan base with a potential of buying its merchandise [24]. At the moment, the club is in a ten-year agreement with Adidas based on their worldwide technical sponsorship as well as double-branded licensing rights that took effect on 1/8/2015[14]. This agreement is exclusive of the mono-branded licensing rights. The company intends to put an investment in expanding its product portfolio licenses to improve the availability of its range of products to their followers. Besides, the club may look into ways of refining the segmentation of the various elements of that business. The company again may aim at increasing its focus on building these rights more proactively with other partners [14].

Utilization of current media and mobile opportunities

 

Social media together with internet mobile has paved new gaps for many growth opportunities as well as new revenue streams [25]. The company intends to leverage on 3rd party sites of social media besides developing their digital properties. It is mentioned by [3] that the club is not appearing in the top five of the most followed clubs on Twitter. This is a good gap for the company to shift most of its followers to this platform and earn the engagement of these followers [10]. The company aims to make these social media platforms their primary techniques of follower engagement as well as transactions across the world. From 2013, the company has fully owned the Manchester United television to make sure that they have stronger management of their production, quality of their proprietary content as well as distribution besides having a better knowledge of the ways of evaluating their digital media tactic as the company proceeds to create as well carefully rolling out the current products and services on target [14]. The company made a move in developing and launching a D2C mobile application for subscription on android, iOS as well as MUTV.com in the financial year 2016/2017; a move which enabled their fans to Livestream their first-team tour matches, academy team games, and uniquely generated original productions together with interviews with their team manager as well as players.

The mobile application has enabled the company to capture new territories overseas, besides, their fans in the UK and Ireland for the first time are watching their MUTV channel via their web browser with neither a cable nor satellite subscription. In the fiscal year 2018, the club launched MUTV software on connected platforms for TV like Apple TV, Xbox, Amazon Fire as well as Roku. This provides their fans with a chance of watching their games comfortably in their living rooms regardless of subscription. This has opened up ways for the club to attract the young generation to their fan base which sees it generate a lot of revenue. To have a cleaner content delivery, the company’s website was updated in 2018[14]. This new website is believed to give commercial advantages to the business with bigger E-commerce opportunities as well as more digital inventory to the commercial partners to benefit. Besides this, the company intends to leverage third party media sites as well as other social media as a technique of engaging further with their fans and building a traffic source for their digital media assets. The company’s digital media offerings are still in their younger ages of growth and they pose future growth opportunities [14].

Improve the reach and distribution of their broadcasting rights.

 

According to [25], fans love live sports as well as consuming those activities in real-time currently. The result of this is higher audiences as well as increased interest in advertisers of television and radio. The company is well-positioned to accrue benefits from the escalated value as well as the distribution growth related to the Premier League, Champions league together with other competitions. The premier league announced its move in selling five of the seven United Kingdom television rights packages in 2018. These were sold to Sky Sports and BT sport at a total cost of up to 4.5 billion euros for the 2019/2020 season. The league that sold the remaining two packages for Amazon Prime Video and BT sports; which was a new entry to the premier league UK contracts of broadcasting. These broadcasting rights have had an increment of about 30[13]. Currently, UEFA clubs’ competition broadcasting rights have had a 33% increase from the past contract. With the MUTV, the company believes that it will take advantage of these contracts and enjoy their benefits of the increased revenue [14].

Revenue diversification and margin improvement

 

Diversification of revenue as defined by [7], is the shifting from one source of revenue generation to multiple sources. The company aims to escalate its revenue as well as operating margins while expanding further into their big growth commercial businesses that include sponsorship, licensing & media, and mobile. Through the increase of focus on its commercial businesses, the company will diversify more their revenue making them realize increased profitability [25].

 

Segmentation and Targeting

 

Market segmentation is an aspect that is properly established in the theory of marketing and is applicable in all sectors of industries. It is not problematic to develop and implement schemes of segmentation in most companies even though it is widely used [4]. Football has grown over the years and currently, it is more loved and watched by many male individuals age 15-35 across the world [18]. Manchester united thus, should majorly focus on segmenting and targeting the millions of people who love to play and watch football around the world; besides targeting those males of age 15 and above across the world. This is possible by focusing majorly on social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, online tv channels, and YouTube among other platforms because studies like that done by [19] show that most youths like engaging in social media, and through this, a lot of revenue would be generated by the company. Considering the positioning of the club, the company’s popular stadium is Old Trafford is situated in the heart of Manchester city [6]; which is accessible to almost everyone. The stadium has a capacity of around 76000 people which is a good number to generate a proper amount of revenue for the club [6].

The tactic- How to exactly get there

 

According to a study done by [1] marketing is a business function that defines and identifies the consumer needs besides identifying the target markets and applying products and services to serve such types of markets. It also involves products and services promotion in the marketplace [23]. Marketing is an important aspect of business success as it aims at customer satisfaction, consumer value as well as quality. On the other hand, the marketing mix is a commonly employed strategy in marketing that mixes integral variables to achieve ideal results [1]. In this tactical approach, this strategy will use the four variables of marketing mix known as the 4P’s (Price, Place, Product, Promotion) of marketing [22].

Product

 

The main product offered by the United company is football match alongside other products like tickets, catering services, MUTV Livestream in a variety of languages among others; however, more research needs to be done on the market concerning the product delivery. The company needs to clearly define their products and services characteristic and evaluate if they reach the customers’ demands. The company could offer good packages for the tickets, increase the number of stadiums they have globally besides improving the contents clarity of the MUTV and the website [8]. This is the potential in attracting more viewers and buyers of broadcasting rights globally.

 

Manchester United Launches on TikTok in 2020

 

 

“Manchester United (NYSE: MANU; the “Company” and the “Group”) – one of the most popular and successful sports teams in the world – today launched a TikTok channel with a mission to inspire and entertain millions of fans worldwide with exclusive behind-the-scenes content, engaging hashtag challenges and thrilling action moments.” [27]

 

Place

 

It is mentioned by [1] that place is regarded as the location, distribution, and how the product is delivered to the clients. The stadium; Old Trafford is the main place where the games are watched. The tactic is to increase attendance because more people love to watch live football on match day. Through this, more tickets could be sold to the fans. To increase more attendance and thus more revenue generation, the stadium should be made presentable and ensuring that all the attendees are comfortable by considering that: brandings of Manchester united should be clear and consistent in the stadium’s touchpoints, high-quality services should be available in the stadium i.e. hospitality, catering among other services, monitoring and cleaning of the stadium should be done every time and lastly there should be a high degree of security for the wellbeing of the fans. These ensure that they enjoy the game and thus attracting more fans. The stadium could also be expanded through technology to increase its capacity [23].

Price

 

This is the amount of money paid by the customers to buy the products and services sold by a company. A business can take into consideration aspects like discounting, cash and credit purchases, price setting as well as credit collection [1]. Manchester United’s ticket prices are lower compared to its competitors like Chelsea with a cost of 900 euros. Increasing this could bring no loss to them considering the quality of services they give their customers and the loyalty from their fan base [16]. A slight increment in the ticket prices could mean an increase in the amount of revenue collected on a matchday [1].

Promotion

 

This is the act of informing the customers about the values and benefits of a business’ products and services [1]. Manchester can use various promotion and advertising ways like its influential players such as Paul Pogba, Bruno Fernandes, and Rashford who have good fan base loyalty. An increased product endorsement by these players would mean an increased amount of revenue generated for the club. The company can also increase its partnerships with leading global partners like Nike, Adidas, Chevrolet among others to ensure an increased amount of revenue [16].

Action- what should be done

 

To ensure that the set objectives have been met and properly running, there will be a series of activities done in various categories like daily or weekly team meetings; which will involve question and answer sessions, monitoring of budget, internal communications as well as status meetings. Secondly, analytics on revenue will be done based on a daily check-up of key outcomes. Another aspect will be the brand research which involves checking on the progress of the brand equity. Innovation and experimentation are also another way that will be used to monitor the increment of revenue where 10% of the budget is used to measure new ways of achieving the objective.

Control- Did we get there?

 

The marketing team must concentrate on the main objective as well as setting several check-ups on the marketing mix to enable them to work towards achieving the main objective of commercial revenue increment.

Conclusion

 

Increasing revenue in Manchester United was the focus of this report. Marketing is a key issue in the lifecycle of any given business; and to achieve an objective set, there needs to be an appropriate strategy that would make the set objective met. To increase revenue in a business, the marketing department must analyze to find out what appropriate method should be used. A SOSTAC analysis which covers SWOT and PESTLE analysis is an important tool that would aid the marketing department to outline the company’s internal and external contingencies. Through the use of this strategic analysis, Manchester united management would have increased revenue, thus, carrying out an appropriate analysis is crucial to any business.

                                                                             

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

 

  1. Acutt, M., 2020. The 4Ps Of Marketing – The Marketing Mix. [online] The Marketing Mix. Available at: <https://marketingmix.co.uk/4ps-marketing/> [Accessed 10 November 2020].
  2. Castaldi, C. and Giarratana, M., 2018. Diversification, Branding, and Performance of Professional Service Firms. Journal of Service Research, 21(3), pp.353-364.
  3. Deloitte, 2014. Football Money League. 17th ed. [ebook] Available at: <https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/uk/Documents/sports-business-group/deloitte-uk-deloitte-football-money-league-2014.pdf> [Accessed 24 November 2020].
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  9. Hamon, J., 2012. Manchester United F.C : Marketing Strategy Of A Global Brand In Asia. [ebook] Available at: <https://www.doyoubuzz.com/var/f/4m/FC/4mFC-Rq3zl7TVcanDkwYXO_KJb6LB1GIWAPS5HgNuvsUE2xrie.pdf> [Accessed 18 November 2020].
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  15. Manchester United Governance, 2020. Board Of Directors. [online] Ir.manutd.com. Available at: <https://ir.manutd.com/corporate-governance/board-of-directors.aspx> [Accessed 10 November 2020].
  16. Manchester united marketing mix 4P’s, 2020. Manchester United Marketing Mix (4Ps) Strategy | MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.. [online] MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share. Available at: <https://www.mbaskool.com/marketing-mix/services/17773-manchester-united.html> [Accessed 10 November 2020].
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  18. Ofcoms, 2020. PREMIER LEAGUE FOOTBALL Research Into Viewing Trends, Stadium Attendance, Fans’ Preferences And Behaviour, And The Commercial Market. [ebook] pp.1-152. Available at: <https://ec.europa.eu/competition/antitrust/cases/dec_docs/38173/38173_104_7.pdf> [Accessed 10 November 2020].
  19. PERRIN, A. and ANDERSON, M., 2019. Share Of U.S. Adults Using Social Media, Including Facebook, Is Mostly Unchanged Since 2018. [online] Pew Research Center. Available at: <https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/04/10/share-of-u-s-adults-using-social-media-including-facebook-is-mostly-unchanged-since-2018/> [Accessed 10 November 2020].
  20. Roşca, V., 2010. Strategic Development of the Manchester United Football Club. [online] 13(2). Available at: <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49592277_Strategic_Development_of_the_Manchester_United_Football_Club> [Accessed 10 November 2020].
  21. Sammut-Bonnici, T. and Galea, D., 2015. PEST analysis. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, pp.1-1.
  22. Singh, M., 2012. Marketing Mix of 4P’S for Competitive Advantage. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, [online] 3(6), pp.40-45. Available at: <https://www.academia.edu/33744456/Marketing_Mix_of_4PS_for_Competitive_Advantage> [Accessed 28 November 2020].
  23. The times 100, 2020. Marketing Mix (Price, Place, Promotion, Product). 12th ed. [ebook] pp.1-2. Available at: <https://fba.aiub.edu/Files/Uploads/MKT110023.pdf> [Accessed 29 November 2020].
  24. Wilson, B., 2018. Manchester United ‘Are China’s Most Popular Digital Team’. [online] BBC News. Available at: <https://www.bbc.com/news/business-42875703> [Accessed 18 November 2020].
  25. TORKORNOO, E.O.- (2014). Report: Manchester United. [online] pp.1–9. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/16325126/Strategic_Analysis_of_Manchester_United_as_a_Business?email_work_card=abstract-read-more [Accessed 20 Nov. 2020].

 

  1. Smith, A.. 2017 Manchester United and Manchester City global social media support compared . [online] Available at: https://www.skysports.com/football/news/11096/10954114/manchester-united-and-manchester-city-global-social-media-support-compared [ Accessed 23 November . 2020]

27.  Ward A… 2020 Manchester United Launches on TikTok. [online] Available at : https://finance.yahoo.com/news/manchester-united-launches-tiktok-140000785.html [Accessed 3 December . 2020]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix: Manchester’s followers in social media, all around the world

 

 

Manchester United’s Stock Chart

 

THE HISTORY OF IRANIAN FOOTBALL

 Semmelweis University 

Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences 

THE HISTORY OF IRANIAN FOOTBALL 

(1900-2013) 

Supervisor: Author:Amir Majid Vahid 

Dr: Katalin Szikora 

Full-time Courses 

Budapest 

2013 

Table of contents 

1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………2 

1.1 Choice of subject…………………………………………2 

1.2. Definition of Football…………………………………….3 

2 Historical overview………………………………………3_4 

2.1 History of football…………………………………………4 

2.2 History of football in Iran…………………………………5 

3 THE BEGINNINGS…………………………………………6 

3.1 History of Persepolis F.C football club……………………6_7_8 

3.2 History of Esteghlal F.C football club…………………….9-10 

3.3 The Iranian International team……………………………10_23 

3.4 Introduce famous football players………………………..24_28 

4 AIM OF STUDY ……………………………………………28 

5 METHOD……………………………………………………29 

6 RESULTS……………………………………………………29 

7 CONCLUSION……………………………………………..30_31 

8 REFERENCES………………………………………………31_32 

1 

1 INTRODUCTION 

1.1 Choice of subject 

Over past few decades Iranian football has gone through many changes and in recent years has become more professional. I started playing football at a very young age with my brother and my uncles. The fun and thrill that I got from the games have stayed with me till now. Football was a easy game to play that helped me bond with other kids that I didn’t know and also didn’t required much equipemnt just a ball and the play area to have a good run around. I wanted to know more about the history of football in Iran and people that made the football popular in Iran. 

No matter how you look at it, football will last through the ages due to it’s versatility, not requiring many equipment and thrill and fun it brings to people who play it. 

1.2 Definition of Football 

A game played by two teams of 11 players each on a rectangular, 100-yard-long field with goal lines and goal posts at either end, the object being to gain possession of the ball and advance it in running or passing plays across the opponent’s goal line or kick it through the air between the opponent’s goal posts, In general play, the goalkeepers are the only players allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms (unless the ball is carried out of play, where the field players are required to restart by a throw-in of the game ball), while the field players typically use their feet to kick the ball, occasionally using other parts of their legs, their torso, or their head. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either 

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adrwas is declared or the game goes into extra times and/or a penaltly shoouted ,depending on the format of the competition. The laws of the games were originally codified in England by the football association in 1863 and have evolved since then. Association football is governed internationally by the inter national association of football (FIFA french: Fédération Internationale de Football Association), which organises the FIFIA world cup every four years. 

2_HISTORICAL OVERVIEW 

2.1 History of football 

Football (soccer) is a popular sport in many countries around the world. The early history suggests the sport resembling football played in china in 2nd and 3rd centuries BC. During Hon dynasty in China people start to dribble leather ball by kicking it into a small net. The Ancient Greeks and Romans are also known to have used the feet to play ball games. 

Later on in Japan the game known as Kemari was played in Asuka period at imperial court in Kyoto from about 600 AD. 

Modern football was started in England. About 1815 a major development took place that made football popular in colleges and universities. 

3 

The football association was formed in October 1863 when elven representative from London clubs and schools met at the freemason’s Tavern to set up common fundamental rules to control the matches among themselves. 

FIFA was established in 1904 and first world cup was organized in Uruguay. 

For over a century, despite protests from the Italians, England has been credited as having given birth to modern football. A claim which had looked quite solid until as recently as 2011, when a shocking find by historians traced football’s roots to a quite extraordinary place. An uncovered book, titled Vocabula, seemed to turn soccer’s history on its head. Written by an Aberdonian (citizen of Aberdeen in Scotland) it detailed a game in which two teams played with a ball on a field roughly the size of the present regulation pitches. Not only that, but terms such as keeper (goalkeeper), kick off, and switch halfs were also mentioned. How does this refute England’s claim, you might be thinking? Well, this account was written in the fourteenth century, more than 400 years before the English FA was formed. 

Not enough? Well, a football found behind a wall in Stirling Castle has been dated and named as the oldest in the world. It dates back to the fifteenth century. 

Finally, the oldest club was formed in 1824 in Edinburgh by John Hope. The only reason FIFA does not officially crown it with that honor is that the club stopped existing after 17 years. 

Ground breaking facts, in my opinion . Was it ever going to be a surprise, considering the founder of the English FA was a Scotsman probably passing down generations of football knowledge to his neighbors across the border? Scotland was also the country who invented possession play, using short passes to work up the field into dangerous positions instead of the long ball hit and Hope’s tactics in practice before then.Football has a long and glorious history. Its methods have been refined and improved through the centuries to give us the king of all sports. Scotland, 

4 

Right fully, can claim the title as its home. That is, currently. Who knows, maybe someone with a nose for history and a bit of determination will uncover evidence to refute Calendonias’ claim in the future. Until then, Scotland can proudly reclaim the mantle as the home of world football. 

2.2 History of football in Iran 

British introduced the football to Iranian. In 1907 British minister in Iran organized the first football league in Iran. The game played in very basic level during 1907 till 1911. In 1911 the football association in Tehran was formed to improve the condition of the games and encourage players to join football teams. 

First international football game was played in Tehran between BADKOBE (Russia) and Iran in 1919 which Iran lost the game by 2-0.. The 1923 were the beginning of the football success in schools as a sport. 

The national sport committee was formed in the 1924 to manage the process of the sports outside of the school environment. There were 367 football teams competing in 29 countries. Hussain Sad Ghiyani (football instructor) after return to Iran from Europe formed the national football team to compete in the international level. 

Amjadeh stadium was completed in the 1936 and Iranian football federation was accepted in FIFA(The Fédération Internationale de Football Association) the next year. 

The Iranian football have had many ups and down since 1907 to present time. During this time period the country went through from football. 

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3 THE BEGINNINGS OF IRAN FOOTBALL CLUBS 

3.1 History of PERSEPOLIS F.C. (football club) 

Persepolis football club is based in Tehran, Iran. Persepolis F.C. is an Iran Pro league professional football club. 

Persepolis Athletic and Cultural club Founded in 1963 by Ali Abdo. He moved from USA to Iran and for a long time was thinking of forming a football team. At the beginning the club was in the second division with not much success in the games. After the break up of the SHAHIN football club, which had many good players, Persepolis was able to invite few of their payers to join their team. In 1968 the new Persepolis team with new players and coach Dehdari started a new season in football league. 

Base on regulation new team had to start from third or second division but because of many teams were dissolved the matches were held to rank the new teams. 44 matches were held that 4 teams of Persepoils, TAJ, OGHAB and PAS finished top of the group. 

The following year Persepolis entered the Asian Champion Club Cup in Bangkok Thailand, which they were eliminated in the group stageIn 1971, Persepolis won the championship in the Iranian league for the first time. In 14 weeks of matches in the season Persepolis managed to have 13 wins and 1 draw. In 1972 Abdo announced Persepolis as the first professional football club in Iran. Takht Jamshid cup was established in 1973 that Persepolis won the cup, and also in 1975. Persepolis is the most successful club in Takht Jamshid cup league with winning the cup twice and finishing as runner-up three times. 

6 

Abdo left Iran for USA after Iranian revolution in 1979. Persepolis fell apart, as many players didn’t return to the team. The club placed under The Physical Education Department of Iran. The Oppressed and Veterans Departments Foundation sequestered the Club’s property. 

The Physical Education Department wish to change the name of the club was received by resistance from the team officials, players and fans. To show their opposition they didn’t appear in the match against Homa in the Tehran league. They lost the match 3-0 by default and Homa became the champion. 

The Veterans foundation tried to change the name of the club in 1986 to Azadi. The players declared that they wouldn’t play if the name change went through.in 1987 The Physical Educational Department took over the club again and suggested to rename the club to Pirouzi that players agreed. 

Mohammad Rourynian the chairman of the club announced in 10 April 2012 that the club would officially only be known as Persepolis. During 90s the club was revitalized and the team had achieved four league championships, two Hafezi cups and dozens of great players. 

Persepolis won the national championship in 1995-1996 season. At one point in the season they were ten points behind Bahman F.C., but they managed to finish by six points ahead of the runner-up team. They were. 

The winner of the championship the next season as well. In the Asian championship cup they came third by defeating Iraq’s Al-Zawraa. The next season the team withdrew from the league due to their commitments to the Asian Champions’ Cup and the large number of the national team player they had. They didn’t perform well in The Asian Champion’s Cup and they lost their third place match to Al-Hilal. 

The Persepolis teams during the 1996-97 and 1997-98 are considered by many to be the greatest Iranian club to ever play. During this time many of their players were stars in the national team. Players such as; Ahmadreza 7 

Abedzadeh, Khodadad Azizi, Kaarim Bagheri, Ali Daei, Mehdi Mahdavikia, Mehrdad Minavand, Ali Karimi were among the superstars of the national team. 

Several of club’s best players were transferred to European clubs after the World Cup 1998. Despite all the transfers they won the 1998-99 championships as well as the Hazfi Cup that season. They were the winner of the 1999-2000 league championship and third position in the Asian Champion Cup. 

During Ali Parvin as manager the Persepolis won the most championships. 

In 2001 new IPL established and Persepolis entered the league as a powerful team. They were able to win the championship by only one point in their last game. 

8 

Persepolis and Esteghlal semi finall 2009(lege Azadegan) 

They were unable to keep the championship in the 2002-03 season and third place was all they could achieve. In the newly created AFC Champions League, they failed to advance out of the group stage. 

3.2 The history of ESTEGHLAL F.C.(football club) 

Esteghlal Tehran Football Club is a professional Football Club base in Tehran. It was founded 1945 as Docharkhe savarin. 

The team played its first official match in 1946 and was the winner of the Hazfi cup in 1947. 

The club was officially renamed 1949 to Taj. The club had many supporters and fans for some years and won numerous leagues of AFC Champions league, Hazfie cups and IPL. Under the management of Zdravko Rajkov, Esteghlal was the first Iranian club to win the Asian Cup in 1970. 

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After the revolution in Iran in 1979 the club was put under the management of the Physical Education Orgenization of Islamic of Iran. They decided to change the name of the club to Esteghlal. In 1990 Esteghlal was able to repeat its success by becoming the winner of the Asian Club Cup. 

By the hard work of Ali Danai the Club became more outstanding and many good players were came out of the team such as; Beuk Jedikar, Parvis Kozeo-Kanani, Bayati brothers and Aref gholizade. 

Taj played its first international game in Afghanistan that won the game 3-2. Taj also played games against SK Rapid Wien Austria, FC Torpedo Moscow, AC Sparta Prauge Czech Republic, Fortuna Dusseldorf Germany and many other international teams that gave the Club good reputation. 

Naser Hejazi 

3.3 The iraninan national football team 

Football has been played in Iran since 1920’s, but the national team was not formed till1941. Since then, Iran has played 285 games against national or Olympic teams. Football development of teame-melli (Iranian National Team) can be summarized in to five distinct periods . In Iran foorball is important soprt among the young people and is very populer as well . Student they play football in physical education time and specially in the summer time there are a lot of football camps around to teach them some skills about football . 

10 

List of games played between 1941-1959 

In 1941, the first game was played against Afghanistan at Kabul to a zero-zero tie. Players consisted of mainly Military school students, some of military personalities during Pahlavi regime. This game marked the beginning of a period of initiation that featured a second place finish in 1951 Asian games. Boromand, Boyok Jedikar, Parviz Dehdari , Gholizade, Hajari were among the main players of this period. Date 

Opponent 

Venue 

Score 

Goals by 

Remark 

1 

1941/1 

Afghanistan 

Kabul 

0-0 

Friendly 

2 

1947/10 

Turkey 

Tehran 

1-3 

Boromand 

Friendly 

3 

1947/10 

Turkey 

Tehran 

1-1 

Boromand 

Friendly 

4 

1947/10 

Afghanistan 

Tehran 

4-0 

Mobbasher(2) Boromand(2) 

Friendly 

5 

1950/6 

Turkey 

Istanbul 

1-6 

Khalili 

Friendly 

6 

1950/10 

Pakistan 

Tehran 

5-1 

Boromand3Shakibi,Khatami 

Friendly 

7 

1951/2 

Burma 

Delhi 

2-0 

Boromand-Alavi 

51 Asian games 

8 

1951/2 

Japan 

Delhi 

0-0 

51 Asian games 

9 

1951/2 

Japan 

Delhi 

3-2 

Ansari(2) Boromand 

51 Asian games 

10 

1951/2 

India 

Delhi 

0-1 

51 Asian games,Iran 2ndplace 

11 

1953/2 

Pakistan 

Karachi 

0-0 

Friendly 

12 

1958/5 

S.Korea 

Tokyo 

0-5 

58 Asian Games 

13 

1958/5 

Israel 

Tokyo 

0-4 

58 Asian Games 

14 

1959/12 

Israel 

India 

3-0 

Barmaki-Hajari-Dehdari 

2nd Asian CupQualifications 

15 

1959/12 

Pakistan 

India 

1-4 

Haji Mokhtar 

2nd Asian Cup Qualifications 

16 

1959/12 

India 

India 

1-3 

Dehdari 

2nd Asian Cup Qualifications 

17 

1959/12 

Israel 

India 

1-1 

Hajari 

2nd Asian Cup Qualifications 

18 

1959/12 

Pakistan 

India 

4-1 

Hajari(3)Jamali 

2nd Asian Cup Qualifications 

19 

1959/12 

India 

India 

2-1 

Dehdari(2) 

2nd Asian Cup Qualifications 

Eustress is one of the Motivational factors that are associated with sports event attendance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amir Vahid

Student Ref: 13128380

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eustress is one of the Motivational factors that are associated with sports event attendance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

1….Eustress is one of the  Motivational factors that are associated with sports event attendance.

2…..conclusion.

3….References 6

 

 

Motivational factors that are associated with sports event attendance:

 

 

In the words of Daniel et al. (2008), there are several types of motivations that attract the individual to watch sports. The author has raised the issue of motivational factors that drive an individual to watch sport. In today’s world, consuming the sport is becoming a trend for entertainment. The specific focus of the author in this article is to describe the motivational profile factors of sports lovers and fans. Apart from that, the author wants to define factors such as self-esteem, escape, entertainment, economic, and many more which drive a person to consume sports. The author defines the major concepts of the findings of the motivational factors that drive a person to watch or consume sports (Wann et al., 2008). The major highlights define that motivation can differ and vary from a person to another person to way of consuming the sport. There are many examples of motivation to consume sports and eustress is one of the most common factors to consume the sport. The eustress refers to the desire to achieve stimulation and excitement through sport. Eustress is considered a way to become entertainment and motivation through sport. The people who love to watch sports generally have the desire to gain excitement. They feel happy and motivated by watching the sport and it is the best way to feel motivated as consuming the sport to feel motivated is considered a good way.

In light of the evidence to Schroy et al. (2016), the author believes that eustress is a positive force and stress to gain enthusiasm while watching the sport. The eustress is the feeling every fan wants to feel while watching the game and this is the way to become motivated and excited. Generally, the fans become excited and stimulated when the game is serious and at that moment of stress, the team plays well this is the moment when fans become excitement and stimulation. Eustress is known as the key motivating factor for the people at every stream whether they are watching the sport, working in the organisation, and anywhere. The eustress can differ in various streams to become motivation and enthusiasm such as in sport the motivation comes when the team performs well, in the organization eustress is gained when the employees perform well in the organization, and many more ways to obtain the eustress motivation. The above two authors believe that eustress is the best way of being the stimulation and motivation in every field whether it is a sport or anything (Liu et al., 2019). There are several benefits of the eustress such as the emotional benefit of the eustress is a feeling of satisfaction, motivation, inspiration, and flow. The psychological benefit of the eustress is that it helps to build autonomy, self-efficacy, and resilience. The physical benefit of the eustress is that it helps to build the body through the intense workout.

As there is some difference between eustress and distress. The eustress is the feeling and desire of gaining motivation and stimulation and on the other hand, distress is a feeling of sadness, loneliness, depression, and many other factors that bring distress. There are several other ways to become the motivation to consume sport such as entertainment, aesthetics, economic, entertainment, family, and group affiliation (Yim et al., 2020). Entertainment refers to consuming the sport just for the entertainment purpose and feeling relaxed. The aesthetics factor of motivation is concerned with fulfilment and interest of the spectators of the sports, the main focus of the aesthetics people is that they prefer to be the witness of the sport instead of witnessing those who are playing that particular sport. Economic factors of motivation refer to the motivation which comes with the intention of economic gains from that particular sport. The family factor of motivation includes the aspects or situations where the family is being benefited by consuming the sport. From all of these factors, the eustress factor is considered as the better way to obtain the motivation by consuming the sport (Sung, Son & Choi, 2017). The eustress motivates the individual in a positive aspect by providing them the stimulation and enthusiasm that helps them to feel motivated. Some motivational patterns affect eustress motivation.

The very first set of examinations of the eustress involves a Multivariate Analysis of Variance in which the particular sport serves as the combination motivational variable subscale scores are set up as the various dependent measures (MANOVA). The MANOVA is a hypothetical test of the effects of single or multiple independent capricious. The MANOVA has an important role in expanding the capability of eustress as the motivation factors of eustress are being enhanced by comparing it by other motivational factors. The eustress plays a vital role in an individual’s life by providing them the stimulation and motivation. This has various positive impacts on an individual’s life as the motivation and stimulation source is positive. The reason behind positively obtaining the stimulation and excitement is because it is coming from watching a sport. The author has strongly stated that stress from sport is the best source to become enthusiastic and stimulation. There are several motivational differences for different sports as the study shows that different motives drive the person to watch different sports. Different sports drive both males and females to consume that particular sport and these factors provide motivation and stimulation (Malchrowicz-Mośko & Chlebosz, 2019). Two types of people segment their choices regarding sports and consume that particular sport to become the excitement level high. Some people like to watch basketball, some like to watch football; and so on the individual’s motivation level is decided by the sport they choose to consume.

According to the study that was conducted by the Wann in which some candidates were asked to list the sport they like to watch, they had been asked to list the sport in the order of most likely to less likely. In the study, Wann found that the motivation of consuming sport is higher stress levels and lower aesthetic level. The result from that study described that the eustress level is the most influencing factor for driving an individual for consuming the sport (Gossmann, 2019). The study has found that eustress is a positive feeling of arousal and fulfilment. The eustress increases the level of attention, skill level, and focus on an individual while the individual is consuming the sport. Many sports actively strive to gain a stressful situation to obtain stimulation and motivation to perform well. There are several benefits of the eustress such as it increases the level of concentration, helps in improving the mindset, helps to maintain the control in inner-self, and most importantly it helps to find the true meaning of life. Apart from that, there are several disadvantages of the eustress such as eustress have a bad impact on speech ability; it increases depression, anxiety, anger, and relationship troubles (Schroy et al., 2016). Apart from the benefits and limitations of the eustress, it is the ultimate source of obtaining the stimulation and motivation through consuming the sport.

The major contribution of eustress is that it helps the individual to feel happy and satisfied along with the motivation in their life. The eustress has a very vital role in the life of a sports person also as it makes them feel stress as energy and helps them to perform well. The report concludes that eustress is beneficial for the individual to consume the sport as it provides them a sense of fulfilment and satisfaction along with the stimulation. The main conclusion of the eustress is that it gives motivation, confidence, increases focus, and energy in individuals but the other finding of the eustress study is that all of the feelings and sense of motivations are short terms (Chacón Cuberos et al., 2018). All of the effects of the eustress that stimulates and motivates the individual have a short period and these effects vanish very quickly after returning from watching the sport.

 

Conclusion

 

The main conclusion of the eustress is that it gives motivation, confidence, increases focus, and energy in individuals but the other finding of the eustress study is that all of the feelings and sense of motivations are short terms (Chacón Cuberos et al., 2018).

The significance of the eustress in this review is that there are several factors and reasons for consuming the sport but apart from all of that the eustress is the factor that influences an individual the most. Hence the conclusion of the report defines that eustress is the most influencing factor among aesthetics, entertainment, economic, and others. Eustress has been a big influencer to gain motivation through consuming the sport not just for the person who is watching but to give a sense of fulfilment to those who are playing it. The author concludes that eustress is a positive feeling and it provides confidence in individuals along with a higher level of satisfaction.

 

 

 

 

References

Chacón Cuberos, R., Zurita Ortega, F., Puertas Molero, P., Knox, E., Cofré Bolados, C., Viciana Garófano, V., & Muros Molina, J. J. (2018). Relationship between healthy habits and perceived motivational climate in sport among university students: A structural equation model. Sustainability, 10(4), 938.

Gossmann, N. (2019). Millennials’ motivation to consume sports content online (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria).

Liu, Y., Chen, L., Keating, X., Still, M., & Chen, S. (2019). Analyzing Motivation Factors for NASCAR Spectators with Self-Determination Theory. American Journal of Sports Science, 7(3), 78-87.

Malchrowicz-Mośko, E., & Chlebosz, K. (2019). Sport Spectator Consumption and Sustainable Management of Sport Event Tourism; Fan Motivation in High-Performance Sport and Non-Elite Sport. A Case Study of Horseback Riding and Running: A Comparative Analysis. Sustainability, 11(7), 2178.

Schroy, C., Plante, C. N., Reysen, S., Roberts, S. E., & Gerbasi, K. C. (2016). Different motivations as predictors of psychological connection to fan interest and fan groups in anime, furry, and fantasy sport fandoms. The Phoenix Papers, 2(2), 148-167.

Sung, J., Son, J., & Choi, Y. (2017). Relationship between motivational factors of online sport consumption and future behavioral intentions among Korean college sport fans. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(1), 269.

Wann, D. L., Grieve, F. G., Zapalac, R. K., & Pease, D. G. (2008). Motivational Profiles of Sport Fans of Different Sports. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 17(1).

Yim, B. H., Byon, K. K., Baker, T. A., & Zhang, J. J. (2020). Identifying critical factors in sport consumption decision making of millennial sport fans: mixed-methods approach. European Sport Management Quarterly, 1-20.

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