Eustress is one of the Motivational factors that are associated with sports event attendance

















Amir Vahid

Student Ref: 13128380











Eustress is one of the Motivational factors that are associated with sports event attendance











Table of Contents

1….Eustress is one of the  Motivational factors that are associated with sports event attendance.


3….References 6



Motivational factors that are associated with sports event attendance:



In the words of Daniel et al. (2008), there are several types of motivations that attract the individual to watch sports. The author has raised the issue of motivational factors that drive an individual to watch sport. In today’s world, consuming the sport is becoming a trend for entertainment. The specific focus of the author in this article is to describe the motivational profile factors of sports lovers and fans. Apart from that, the author wants to define factors such as self-esteem, escape, entertainment, economic, and many more which drive a person to consume sports. The author defines the major concepts of the findings of the motivational factors that drive a person to watch or consume sports (Wann et al., 2008). The major highlights define that motivation can differ and vary from a person to another person to way of consuming the sport. There are many examples of motivation to consume sports and eustress is one of the most common factors to consume the sport. The eustress refers to the desire to achieve stimulation and excitement through sport. Eustress is considered a way to become entertainment and motivation through sport. The people who love to watch sports generally have the desire to gain excitement. They feel happy and motivated by watching the sport and it is the best way to feel motivated as consuming the sport to feel motivated is considered a good way.

In light of the evidence to Schroy et al. (2016), the author believes that eustress is a positive force and stress to gain enthusiasm while watching the sport. The eustress is the feeling every fan wants to feel while watching the game and this is the way to become motivated and excited. Generally, the fans become excited and stimulated when the game is serious and at that moment of stress, the team plays well this is the moment when fans become excitement and stimulation. Eustress is known as the key motivating factor for the people at every stream whether they are watching the sport, working in the organisation, and anywhere. The eustress can differ in various streams to become motivation and enthusiasm such as in sport the motivation comes when the team performs well, in the organization eustress is gained when the employees perform well in the organization, and many more ways to obtain the eustress motivation. The above two authors believe that eustress is the best way of being the stimulation and motivation in every field whether it is a sport or anything (Liu et al., 2019). There are several benefits of the eustress such as the emotional benefit of the eustress is a feeling of satisfaction, motivation, inspiration, and flow. The psychological benefit of the eustress is that it helps to build autonomy, self-efficacy, and resilience. The physical benefit of the eustress is that it helps to build the body through the intense workout.

As there is some difference between eustress and distress. The eustress is the feeling and desire of gaining motivation and stimulation and on the other hand, distress is a feeling of sadness, loneliness, depression, and many other factors that bring distress. There are several other ways to become the motivation to consume sport such as entertainment, aesthetics, economic, entertainment, family, and group affiliation (Yim et al., 2020). Entertainment refers to consuming the sport just for the entertainment purpose and feeling relaxed. The aesthetics factor of motivation is concerned with fulfilment and interest of the spectators of the sports, the main focus of the aesthetics people is that they prefer to be the witness of the sport instead of witnessing those who are playing that particular sport. Economic factors of motivation refer to the motivation which comes with the intention of economic gains from that particular sport. The family factor of motivation includes the aspects or situations where the family is being benefited by consuming the sport. From all of these factors, the eustress factor is considered as the better way to obtain the motivation by consuming the sport (Sung, Son & Choi, 2017). The eustress motivates the individual in a positive aspect by providing them the stimulation and enthusiasm that helps them to feel motivated. Some motivational patterns affect eustress motivation.

The very first set of examinations of the eustress involves a Multivariate Analysis of Variance in which the particular sport serves as the combination motivational variable subscale scores are set up as the various dependent measures (MANOVA). The MANOVA is a hypothetical test of the effects of single or multiple independent capricious. The MANOVA has an important role in expanding the capability of eustress as the motivation factors of eustress are being enhanced by comparing it by other motivational factors. The eustress plays a vital role in an individual’s life by providing them the stimulation and motivation. This has various positive impacts on an individual’s life as the motivation and stimulation source is positive. The reason behind positively obtaining the stimulation and excitement is because it is coming from watching a sport. The author has strongly stated that stress from sport is the best source to become enthusiastic and stimulation. There are several motivational differences for different sports as the study shows that different motives drive the person to watch different sports. Different sports drive both males and females to consume that particular sport and these factors provide motivation and stimulation (Malchrowicz-Mośko & Chlebosz, 2019). Two types of people segment their choices regarding sports and consume that particular sport to become the excitement level high. Some people like to watch basketball, some like to watch football; and so on the individual’s motivation level is decided by the sport they choose to consume.

According to the study that was conducted by the Wann in which some candidates were asked to list the sport they like to watch, they had been asked to list the sport in the order of most likely to less likely. In the study, Wann found that the motivation of consuming sport is higher stress levels and lower aesthetic level. The result from that study described that the eustress level is the most influencing factor for driving an individual for consuming the sport (Gossmann, 2019). The study has found that eustress is a positive feeling of arousal and fulfilment. The eustress increases the level of attention, skill level, and focus on an individual while the individual is consuming the sport. Many sports actively strive to gain a stressful situation to obtain stimulation and motivation to perform well. There are several benefits of the eustress such as it increases the level of concentration, helps in improving the mindset, helps to maintain the control in inner-self, and most importantly it helps to find the true meaning of life. Apart from that, there are several disadvantages of the eustress such as eustress have a bad impact on speech ability; it increases depression, anxiety, anger, and relationship troubles (Schroy et al., 2016). Apart from the benefits and limitations of the eustress, it is the ultimate source of obtaining the stimulation and motivation through consuming the sport.

The major contribution of eustress is that it helps the individual to feel happy and satisfied along with the motivation in their life. The eustress has a very vital role in the life of a sports person also as it makes them feel stress as energy and helps them to perform well. The report concludes that eustress is beneficial for the individual to consume the sport as it provides them a sense of fulfilment and satisfaction along with the stimulation. The main conclusion of the eustress is that it gives motivation, confidence, increases focus, and energy in individuals but the other finding of the eustress study is that all of the feelings and sense of motivations are short terms (Chacón Cuberos et al., 2018). All of the effects of the eustress that stimulates and motivates the individual have a short period and these effects vanish very quickly after returning from watching the sport.




The main conclusion of the eustress is that it gives motivation, confidence, increases focus, and energy in individuals but the other finding of the eustress study is that all of the feelings and sense of motivations are short terms (Chacón Cuberos et al., 2018).

The significance of the eustress in this review is that there are several factors and reasons for consuming the sport but apart from all of that the eustress is the factor that influences an individual the most. Hence the conclusion of the report defines that eustress is the most influencing factor among aesthetics, entertainment, economic, and others. Eustress has been a big influencer to gain motivation through consuming the sport not just for the person who is watching but to give a sense of fulfilment to those who are playing it. The author concludes that eustress is a positive feeling and it provides confidence in individuals along with a higher level of satisfaction.






Chacón Cuberos, R., Zurita Ortega, F., Puertas Molero, P., Knox, E., Cofré Bolados, C., Viciana Garófano, V., & Muros Molina, J. J. (2018). Relationship between healthy habits and perceived motivational climate in sport among university students: A structural equation model. Sustainability, 10(4), 938.

Gossmann, N. (2019). Millennials’ motivation to consume sports content online (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria).

Liu, Y., Chen, L., Keating, X., Still, M., & Chen, S. (2019). Analyzing Motivation Factors for NASCAR Spectators with Self-Determination Theory. American Journal of Sports Science, 7(3), 78-87.

Malchrowicz-Mośko, E., & Chlebosz, K. (2019). Sport Spectator Consumption and Sustainable Management of Sport Event Tourism; Fan Motivation in High-Performance Sport and Non-Elite Sport. A Case Study of Horseback Riding and Running: A Comparative Analysis. Sustainability, 11(7), 2178.

Schroy, C., Plante, C. N., Reysen, S., Roberts, S. E., & Gerbasi, K. C. (2016). Different motivations as predictors of psychological connection to fan interest and fan groups in anime, furry, and fantasy sport fandoms. The Phoenix Papers, 2(2), 148-167.

Sung, J., Son, J., & Choi, Y. (2017). Relationship between motivational factors of online sport consumption and future behavioral intentions among Korean college sport fans. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(1), 269.

Wann, D. L., Grieve, F. G., Zapalac, R. K., & Pease, D. G. (2008). Motivational Profiles of Sport Fans of Different Sports. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 17(1).

Yim, B. H., Byon, K. K., Baker, T. A., & Zhang, J. J. (2020). Identifying critical factors in sport consumption decision making of millennial sport fans: mixed-methods approach. European Sport Management Quarterly, 1-20.

Sport Economics & The Design of Competitions

Sport Economics & The Design of Competitions

Executive Summary

The current assessment critically assesses the organizational structure of the English Premier League (EPL), by analysing the uncertainty in the outcomes of the matches and season by evaluating its competitiveness and its balance.

The Premier League is the highest profit earning football league in England because of its statutory intervention such as revenue sharing by broadcast, third-party player ownership, and financial rule. Premier League is having the highest audience form from the last ten seasons and the profit generated is very high. It is one of the highest profits generating football league. Premier Leagues is a profit-maximizing league rather than a utility-maximizing. The Premier League is one of the high set football leagues due to indicators of the competitively balanced league. However, the current assessment outline the imbalance in the financial management of clubs, further, a different recommendation will be provided to improve the broadcast revenue sharing, for example, distribution of VIP boxes, tickets and financial regulations such as the creation of salary scale for different clubs in the Premier League.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

  1. Competitive balance in the Premier League 2

2.1 Brief introduction and history of the Premier League 2

2.2 Uncertainty of outcome 2

2.3 Regulatory intervention 3

2.4 Profit maximization 5

  1. Recommendations 6

Conclusion 7

References 8

Books and Journals 8

Online 9







The current assessment will discuss the effectiveness of the organization and the structure of a football or any sports league. The critical evaluation will include common topics related to the uncertainty of results in sports and ruthless stability.

The main factor for uncertainty in the outcomes of the sport is imbalanced competition. A balance competition is essential to get customers’ attention towards the league on a massive scale. There is a requirement of equal talent distribution if there is uncertainty in outcomes. The fate of results is necessary as if the customers are willing to pay for the ticket for the game. Competitive balance is required, for example, the balance in profit maximization, revenue sharing, salary caps, and regulatory intervention.

The Premier League or the EPL is often referred to as English Premier League outside of England. On top of the list the Premier League in the system of English football league. The sport is contested by 20 clubs, and it is operated on a system of promotion and relegation with the EFL. The season of this league runs from August to May, where each club plays 38 matches with all the 19 teams home and away from home. The games are generally played on weekend days to ensure large numbers of football lover comes to watch the game. This league generates high profits, and the league is linked to financial regulation. Thus, the clubs in the league are not allowed to spend more money than their income level. The league was founded on 20 February 1992 and from that Manchester United club has won 13 titles.


Figure 1: Premier League Logo


  1. Competitive balance in the Premier League

The assessment explores the competitive balance or stability in the English Football League during the Premier League era. This era is compared with the preceding twenty-eight-year periods. Proven by the following elaboration shows that the current competition level imbalance is not new exceptional. An explanation proffered that there are unequal resources between different clubs in the leagues (Freestone and Manoli, 2017).

2.1 Brief introduction and history of the Premier League

The Premier League is also known as The Premiership, and it is considered the pride of football in the UK. The football league is relatively young, and the reason to start this was a decline in the sport and interest in the UK during the era of 80s. Due to the disaster occurred in the 1985 European Cup Tournament, football stadiums were neglected, and the English clubs were banned from taking part in the competition in Europe. The FA Premier League was formed in February 1992, and the first games were played in August in the same year. Initially, the league had 22 clubs (Webb, 2017).

However, currently, there are 20 teams in the Premier League. The FA Premier League was officially changed in 2007 as The Premier League. The Premier League is also known as Barclays Premier League because it is sponsored by Barclays Bank. Currently, the Premier League is on the top level in the system of the football league. The Premier League season runs from August to May, and there are 20 teams, and each of them playing 38 matches with the other 19 teams. However, a total of 40 teams have participated in this competition, but only 4 out of them have won the title. Manchester United has won the highest number of titles; it boasts a total of 13 Premier League titles.

2.2 Uncertainty of outcome

Uncertainty of outcomes is required if the leagues want their consumers to pay admission to the league’s matches. Therefore, high access in the games is likely to be the outcome of the balanced league.  Despite the increase of the marketing activities internationally by the different sports clubs research evolution exploring the role of sport or match outcome uncertainty in the demand of the spectators has been solely conducted within the governmental context. In this context, very small is well known about the spectators of the sport on TV internationally watching the sport from abroad. There are around 571 English Premier League sports that were broadcast in Germany in the season of 2011-2012 and 2015-20176 to explore whether abroad customer television demand for football matches is affected by game outcome uncertainty. The result of the analysis showed a significant relationship between the need for German EPL and game outcome uncertainty (Schreyer et al., 2018).

The Premier League constitutes the highest level of football in England. It is considered one of the most popular and most followed football leagues across the globe. The Premier League in its current format consists of 20 teams, and there were 22 clubs when The Premier League was formed. Among the best five league ties in Europe, the football leagues include Italy, England, France, Germany, and Spain. The Premier League generates the highest revenue. The projected income at the end of the 2018-19 seasons was around 5.60 billion Euros. It could be said that the outcome uncertainty as of each game and season as consumers are ready to pay for admission in every game because of competitive league balance or stability (Schreyer et al., 2018). 

One of the factors for consumers willing to pay admission for each match is its ticket prices, as the ticket prices for Premier League have nominal ticket prices in Europe. The average ticket price of each Premier League match is between £20 and £40. The ticket prices vary from game to match some may be low, or some may be comparatively high, mostly Manchester United, Liverpool, and Chelsea ticket prices are high. Another reason for the Premier League’s high attendance is the clubs involved in the league, and the clubs are owned by its members and stakeholders. For example, Arsenal club owner is Stan Kroenke, Aston Villa owner is Nassef Sawiris, and Wesley Edens, Chelsea owner is Roman Abramovich. The Premier League three of the clubs are owned by billionaires and 11 clubs are owned by international sponsors, and some of its players also play in the Bundesliga League which has also enhanced the attendance of the consumers in the Premier League matches (Schreyer et al., 2018).

2.3 Regulatory intervention

The regulatory intervention allows a competitive balance in the league so that the club to earn profits. The clubs in European football leagues are known for their institutionalize culture management which prioritizes favourable outcomes over economic performance. This creates a highly competitive context as there are most clubs operated with this, which produce debt and deficiency. To retain the clubs for the long term, the Union of European Football Association (UEFA) has established a regulatory framework and monitor the process that is tied with the accounting data to assess the financial performance of the clubs. The aim of this is to determine the URFA framework, where has any impact on management policies of the clubs concerning their accounting quality (Dimitropoulos et al., 2016).

The broadcast list of Premier League on Television broadcasters provides the league coverage which is the most followed and watched football league in the world. Sky Sports is the main broadcaster of the Premier League in the UK, which broadcast 128 games out of 200 in the UK. All the 200 matches of the football league are broadcast across the globe, the remaining matches are not televised live in the UK, but all are broadcaster elsewhere outside Europe across the world. The Broadcast rights of the English Premier League rise to £5.136bn and is sharing the revenue from the broadcast.

The Broadcast right of the English Premier League in 2016-19 was sold for £5.136bn., including the sold rights for TV broadcast, digital audio, and most matches also sold overseas. English speaking countries can carry out what is known as World feed, or International feed audio excluding the UK, the commentary for the full match is provided by the Premier League.  In Asia and other selected countries across the globe, a fully produced studio broadcast is provided by the Premier Leagues, which is called Premier League Production (Dimitropoulos et al., 2016).

The Premier League shares its revenue with all the clubs. Details of the revenue earned are distributed with 20 teams, with £2.45billion is shared among 20 clubs. It pays high to be on television and distribute the premier League revenue based on numbers of clubs and the numbers of live matches. It is guaranteed to pay its 50% of TV revenue earned equally. As a consequence, small clubs have more income, and they are more profitable compared to others (Butler and Massey, 2019). This model could be a future representation for other football leagues such as La Liga and Bundesliga. The new revenue sharing regulation of the Premier League could be a future model for other leagues in competitive balance. Through the sharing of broadcast revenue, all the clubs seem to be more profitable.

2.4 Profit maximization

After many decades of debates on profit maximization with the economic professionals, the profit maximization theory remains disputed. Economic professional today would argue that maximizing profit is the main focus of the organization’s manager, in today’s times where some managers may pursue profit maximization, and some may not have the debate associated with natural adaption. Going back as far as Alchian (1950), that, some of the economists and economic professions argued that organizations in which decision making is done concentrating on profit maximization would survive for the long term. It is argued that football leagues with relegation and promotion, such as The Premier League are not profit-maximizing but, utility-maximizing and it is stated that this should be the real objective (Garcia and Szymanski, 2006).

A league that achieves a high level of profit is likely to have more competitive balance in the league. The theory of economic professional sports league is based on the assumption that the club’s owner’s main objectives are aligned towards either utility maximization or profit maximization, related to the win than profit. The utility maximization further divided to reflect off any attendance financial constraint; this can be a hard or soft constraint, in which the club owners do not rigidly impose the constraint, as preferring the necessity for enhancing the remuneration for the players in chasing to win or matches (Dimitropoulos et al., 2016). Fort (2015) stated that an important route for sports economics is an estimation of the potential trade between the win and maximizing the profit.

This debate, deal with an aim to professionals clubs, is important as its assumptions can impact prediction and this will likely affect regulatory tools that are used to optimize the league design. While some of the studies have tried to connect two objectives, few have attempted to understand the objectives of the organization of the professional clubs or teams.  One of the studies explains that the previous approaches strongly focused on the background of the economy, while the managerial concept may be more helpful in clarifying the objectives of the organization. The economic approach assumes that deliverable strategy will be registered, recognizing that strategies can form different ways, and they are of great importance in a professional sports team. Hence, the trade-off for the result between the win and profit could be a strategy outcome formulation or may result in disordered in its execution (Fort, 2015). It’s simply the clubs spend no more than as per their income.

Szymanski argued that through regulatory intervention such as TV broadcast and audio sports revenue distribution budget regulation and youth academy and a league allowed the clubs to be more profitable. Therefore, the Premier League could be more competitively balanced. This shows that The Premier League maximizes its profit and thus, the bits of help in achieving competitive balance (Garcia and Szymanski, 2006).

  1. Recommendations

The chapter shows that the Premier League seemed to be competitively balanced, but it is a fact that the Manchester United club has won 13 Premiership titles in a total of 28 years of the league, which point out equality and competitive imbalance in the league. There was a gap between Manchester United club and other clubs that shows an imbalance in the league. The main reason for this imbalance in the league is that the clubs earn income through their sponsors (Garcia and Szymanski, 2006).

In this context, a proper solution can be an overall revenue distribution among the clubs, just like in the NBA. The Premier League can prescribe the sponsor’s rights for the teams or clubs and the league and seasons. Thereafter equally share the revenue earned through ticket, VIP boxes, and broadcasting through television and audio sport among all the teams based on their last year’s performance and position in the Premier League, various facilities and cost of wages, or any other factors. This will support in reducing the inequality among clubs and members caused by their sponsors and also support in enhancing the club’s financial scope. This would increase scope in terms of finance for small clubs; all these will result in a proper competitive balance in the league.

Further, it is recommended that ticket policies can be slightly changed to attract large numbers of consumers, where tickets for domestic consumers must be 60% for the home team and away team consumers 40%. This would increase consumers for smaller clubs and also bring a competitive balance in the league (Oberstone, 2009).

Another solution can be revenue distribution by selling VIP boxes. The Premier League could sell its VIP boxes to sponsors and high economic class consumers and share all the income with clubs. This will increase the financial scope for small clubs and also reduce inequality and financial imbalance.



In conclusion, the Premier League is well balanced and has a clear potential of becoming a good balance and followed football league across the globe. The Premier League has improved its strategies. There was a competitive imbalance in the early-stage as Manchester United has won 13 Premiership titles in 28 years, but now with the improvement in strategies the league has moved towards a more competitively balanced league, and this has ensured more outcome uncertainty for each match, per season for long term. The English Premier League is well known and followed football league across the world and has generated the highest profit past few seasons. Imbalance in financial scope due to unequal revenue sharing from sponsors, but equal sharing of revenue increases clubs’ financial scope.



Books and Journals

Butler, R., and Massey, P., 2019. Has competition in the market for subscription sports broadcasting benefited consumers? The case of the English Premier League. Journal of Sports Economics, 20(4), pp.603-624.

Dimitropoulos, P., Leventis, S., and Dedoulis, E., 2016. Managing the European football industry: UEFA’s regulatory intervention and the impact on accounting quality. European Sport Management Quarterly, 16(4), pp.459-486.

Fort, R., 2015. Managerial objectives: A retrospective on utility maximization in pro team sports. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 62(1), pp.75-89.

Freestone, C.J., and Manoli, A.E., 2017. Financial fair play and competitive balance in the Premier League. Sport, Business, and Management: An International Journal.

Garcia-del-Barro, P., and Szymanski, S., 2006. Goal! Profit maximization and win maximization in football leagues. International Association of Sports Economists, pp.06-21.

Overstone, J., 2009. Differentiating the top English premier league football clubs from the rest of the pack: Identifying the keys to success. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, 5(3).

Schreyer, D., Schmidt, S.L., and Torgler, B., 2018. Game outcome uncertainty in the English Premier League: Do German fans care?. Journal of Sports Economics, 19(5), pp.625-644.

Stefan Szymanski (2001). “Income Inequality, Competitive Balance, And The Attractiveness of Team Sports: Some Evidence And A Natural Experiment From English Soccer”. The Economic Journal. 111 (February). F69, via Online library Wiley.

Webb, T., 2017. Elite soccer referees: officiating in the premier league, La Liga, and Serie A. Taylor & Francis.




Sportsbusinessdaily. 2012. NBA revenue. [Online]. [9 October 2020]. Available from:

Premier League. 2020. [Online]. [9 October 2020]. Available from:



Premier league project big picture proposal of October 2020

Explain the business model of the English premier league. Critically assess how the premier league might develop this model going forward in the light of the  project big picture proposal of October 2020




The English Premier league is owned by its 20 members club which are held privately.

All 20 clubs are independent and work under Pyramid based of FA, EUFA and FIFA, as well as follow English and European law, however after BREXIT the European law had subjected to change.


The English Premier league has a few stream of incomes such as commercial revenues from sponsorship and merchandise sales, which is naturally shared equally amongst the clubs depends on the club pupillarity. However the most important part of income its broadcasting.



Broadcasting is the one of the major an impressive business model which clubs revenue come from.

Big tech companies by put bidding  procedure to become the exclusive rights holder of the games and eventually charge their audience access fees and ad placement fees to advertisers. For instance BT sport, Sky Sport and this year Amazon Prime has participated to show 16 games.


The 50 % of income from broadcasting are shared equally among the 20 clubs. 25% of the proceeds are distributed to the so-called merit fee, which is decided by the club ranking in the league at the end of the season.

The remaining 25 percent is assigned to facility rates, which vary based on how much the games are shown on TV. As far as international television rights are concerned, all sales are divided equally, but as of the 2019/2020 season, any raise will be allocated to teams on the basis of their place in the league table.


Project Big Picture’ concept has brought up from Liverpool and supported by Manchester United, which says 9 big clubs have right to vote to major change and therefore more broadcasting revenue  comes to 18 teams.

The plans entail a number of significant improvements, including the decrease of the number of Premier League clubs from 20 to 18, as well as the removal of the League Cup and the Community Shield.

The reform proposals have been endorsed by the EFL, primarily because it is planned to fork over 25% of all profits from the four divisions directly to the Football League, as well as offering a much-needed loan of GBP 250 million.


It implies the understanding of the primary source of Project Big Picture, top 6 clubs enjoys most benefit of this event , however by sharing some money to other teams, the rest will use benefit of this new structurer for football.


Project Big Picture is a fresh dawn that will reinvigorate the football pyramid at all stages. This new beginning will re-energize clubs in the lower divisions.


Although there are positives to the suggested reforms, the measures will entail controversially granting the main players in the Premier League more leverage to control big decisions, including arrangements allowing the nine longest serving parties to take on a ‘long-term shareholder role.’

This will entail being able to make choices and improvements with the help of (somewhat suspiciously) six of the nine teams, all of which fear that this is the beginning of the conventional ‘big six’ league, having full charge of the division and possibly the first move to promote the European Super League.


In the light of the  project big picture proposal of October, the broadcasting revenue will massively increase for English team as we know more people are willing to watch 6 tops team, therefore the 6 big clubs will use more benefit from advertising, improving contract with current and future sponsors and ticket revenue. However the down side \of this increase my occur more bargaining power through agents and players. Premier League teams will have the sole right to market eight live games exclusively to fans outside the UK on their own digital channels.


The proposals laid out how the nine longest-serving clubs will have a larger impact on a number of governance issues, including television arrangements, cost management mechanisms such as Financial Fair Play and even ownership of other clubs. The big six will both profit the most from plans to market eight matches each season directly to foreign audiences, and from a reduction in the new calendar to enable this to happen.

Reducing the number of Premier League clubs and abolishing the EFL Cup will create room for more Champions League games, and no club is ever able to give up games that make money, which is why the Premier League has never been trimmed to less than 20 teams. A changed voting system would make it possible for the wealthy to alter the structure.

The benefit of the game – the fact that the best football is played between the two teams with an essentially equal capacity, the right of every individual somewhere in the world to have their own team that could in any way be successful – will be sacrificed. The only realistic endpoint will be a super league with a tiny handful of European super clubs.




Lower blood sugar with these three foods

Lower blood sugar with these three foods
Dr. Mohammad Hossein Salehi, Professor of the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tehran, stated that it is necessary to control blood sugar, diet, high mobility, reduce stress, anxiety and use appropriate drugs (chemical or herbal), fenugreek seeds, garlic and onion They are among the plants that have effective properties in lowering blood sugar.

Dr. Mohammad Hossein Salehi Surmaghi, in an interview with the Health and Medical Reporter of the Iranian Students News Agency (ISNA), about the effectiveness of herbal medicines in the treatment of diabetes, said: Herbal medicines can be used to reduce low and moderate blood sugar. High blood sugar requires chemical drugs, herbal medicines can be used as an aid in these situations.

Fenugreek seeds have the property of lowering blood sugar. These seeds can be used one tablespoon of jam every day. You can also use a glass of water for 5 minutes to boil the seeds and consume it after straining.

Garlic and onions also have blood sugar lowering properties. Of course, garlic is stronger than onions in this respect. For this purpose, you can use 1 to 3 garlic tablets daily, which are available in pharmacies.

Other herbs that can lower blood sugar and can be consumed permanently in the diet include carrots, coriander (especially seeds), nettle, artichoke, walnuts, celery, pumpkin, olives, barley and alfalfa. .

The important point is that high blood sugar can not be normalized with herbal medicines and it must be controlled by following a diet, high mobility, reducing stress, anxiety and taking appropriate medications (chemical and herbal).

The Russian-made Corona vaccine is 92 percent effective

Russia’s Sputnik V corona vaccine is 91.6 percent effective against Covid-19. This is the result of research published in the Lancet, one of the most famous and prestigious medical journals in the world.

Scientists have previously criticized the speed of production and distribution of the Russian vaccine, arguing that it was carried out with “improper haste, too fast and far from transparent.”

A test of his Sputnik vaccine, published in The Lancet, was conducted with the participation of nearly 20,000 people in Russia this fall and shows that the vaccine is 91.6% effective. The study also found that the Russian corona vaccine was shown to prevent people from developing severe Covid-19.

Sputnik was the first vaccine in the world to receive an injection permit, which happened in August last year. Russian President Vladimir Putin announced on national television that one of his daughters had received the vaccine. His Sputnik vaccine was still being tested on a small number of people at the time.

The first dose of his sputnik vaccine was given in a limited number of people under the age of 60 and those without the underlying disease – a method unlike other countries in the world that prioritized the elderly and vulnerable in their vaccination schedule.

Another group that was given priority for the Russian corona vaccine was people with high-risk occupations such as the corona, education and social services.

Preliminary results of his Sputnik vaccine were released in September last year, but participants were only monitored for nearly 42 days and there was no comparison group in the study.


The latest study was conducted on more than 20,000 people over the age of 18 in 25 Moscow hospitals between September and November last year. Three-quarters of the participants received two doses of the Russian corona vaccine 21 days apart, and the other quarter received a placebo.

The most common side effects reported by those receiving the vaccine were flu-like symptoms, pain at the injection site, and fatigue. Serious side effects were rare in both groups and 4 deaths were reported in this study, although none of the causes of the Russian corona vaccine was reported.

Maintaining your fitness with some simple strategies

In addition to keeping your weight down, fitness also helps you stay lean and flexible. Fitness plays an important role in maintaining the health of the body. Regular exercise, a balanced diet rich in nutrients and a sedentary lifestyle have been proven to be important factors in maintaining a healthy body. When the body is not ready, simple tasks such as bending over to hold the baby or lifting a book off the shelf can potentially cause muscle damage. They are easily injured when the delicate muscles of the body, especially the back and neck muscles, are not regularly exercised. When these muscles are damaged, they need a long time to heal and fit.


Step # 1- Discovering Your Purpose When you plan to travel,

you must determine a suitable and achievable destination for your trip in order to reach a certain destination in the shortest possible time. Losing weight follows the same rule. You have to be realistic if you want to reach your ideal weight. How long you want to reach what weight should be logically possible. So do your goal rationally and seriously. Goal setting should be more precise and go beyond things like “I want to lose weight” and the like. You need to choose a smart and effective goal for yourself. The smart goal includes the following features:

1. Define your goals

The right goal to achieve the ideal weight must be specially selected. You need to have a good explanation of your goal in mind and repeat it to yourself. One of the best ways to motivate yourself is to use the verb “I can” or “I can” instead of the verb “I want” or “I love”. For example, do not say, “I want to lose 5 kilos …” but say, “I can lose 5 kilos.” Or “I will be able to reduce my size from X-Large to Large.”

2. Consider measurable items.

Be sure to use numbers when targeting. For example, choose a unit such as weight, clothing size or waist and target your desired size for each or one of them. In this way, try to reach the goal until you reach that specific size.


3.Choose actions you can take based on your job

home and work situation, how much money you spend to lose weight, or how much time you have to reach your goal. If you are a teacher, surely the time you spend to reach your ideal weight should be outside the time frame when you take care of homework and school. Maybe you can only walk 10 or 20 minutes a day and no more! So make a plan to act on it and do not get tired of it. Not a program that you can not afford.

4. Be realistic Choose your goals realistically

For example, if you want to lose 20 kilos, you have to accept that it is not possible to achieve such a goal in 2 weeks. Use the ten-finger rule to set a specific time frame to reach your desired weight. According to this rule, your weight is divided into 100 and the amount of weight you lose each week depends directly on your weight at the beginning of each week. Lose weight by one of 100 at the end of each week. For example, if you weigh 85 kg and want to lose 10 kg, by the end of the first week (depending on exercise or diet) you should lose 850 grams. You might think that this way you will reach your ideal weight after 12 weeks. But hold on !! Be realistic. Note that at the end of the weeks you spend, your weight becomes less and less, so the amount of weight you lose will be less and the time required will be more. But do not worry, this time will pass very quickly and effectively.


5- Do not forget time According to the principle of realism

you should also pay attention to time. If you have a 3-month weight loss plan, you have to promise that you will do your best to reach your goal on time. Now that you know how to choose smart goals in the field of weight loss, if you are going to do it, take the paper now and write and review your goals based on the mentioned factors. Note: After writing the goals, install them in front of you. In the kitchen, on the bedroom mirror, on the desk, on the shoe rack and next to the walking shoes, and wherever it is in front of your eyes, it is suitable for this purpose. If someone sees it, it can be useful to increase your motivation. But this was the first step. You need to take two more steps to reach your goals.

6. Eat breakfast Breakfast is the most important meal of any healthy person.

People who skip breakfast from their meals suffer a lot in the long run. One of these injuries is weight gain. Not eating breakfast leads to excessive hunger in the interval between breakfast and lunch. In this way, the body secretes hormones to prevent the weakness caused by not eating breakfast. These hormones cause obesity after a while. In addition, it increases the appetite when eating lunch, and not only do you eat a lot of food, but also the speed of eating and the subsequent injuries.

7.Stop or reduce the consumption of sugar, flour and fried foods.

In the last half century, the food of a wide range of different communities has changed a lot, and these three, which we have mentioned, quickly entered many of our foods and meals. Were. Of course, we are to blame. We have to admit that it has become very difficult to remove these three items (sugar, wheat flour and fried foods) from our food cycle. But someone who aims to lose weight and be healthier should choose as many healthier foods as possible. For example, use foods that are naturally sweet or use barley bread instead of wheat bread. Also, boil foods instead of frying them. If you are addicted to sweets, try to stop eating sweets at least once every three days to achieve your goal (weight loss). By consuming natural foods, in addition to losing weight, you will have a healthier and more energetic life.


8- Drink at least two liters of water. Water is the best drink for your body.


More than half of our body is made up of water. It is recommended to drink water even if you do not feel thirsty, especially when you are looking to lose weight, but why? Drinking water will deceive your brain. When drinking water, the brain does not distinguish hunger from thirst and thinks that it must send the body signs of satiety. In this way, in addition to hydrating the body, you will be less thirsty. Of course, water is not just ordinary drinking water. Rehydrate in different ways. Drinking tea, natural beverages and any liquids that contain water is recommended.


9. Do not eliminate carbohydrates.

Eliminating carbohydrates, such as whole-grain bread, can make you feel tired, lethargic, and moody very quickly, so eat the right types.


10.Eat Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Vegetables are an unlimited source of weight loss.


When they are fresh and in season, you should make the most of them and enjoy all the benefits of their nutrients.



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